Proofing Terminology

Author’s Corrections (A/C’s)

Changes made by the client after the original files have been submitted. These are usually considered an additional cost to the client.

Blueline/Plotter Proof

A low resolution proof either one color or 4 color showing page layout and trim. Bluelines are not representative of final color or quality.  These paged proofs are also referred to as ozalids or content proofs.


A sample of the actual ink that is to be printed. Most commonly used for pantone (PMS) colors.


A prototype that is made from the materials quoted which represents the final product.  Dummy books made at Friesens are handbound whereas dummy books made at Huaxin are machine bound.

Hi-Res or Digital Proof

A high resolution color proof showing the approximate color and quality of photographs and 4-color printing.  PMS colors are simulated in this process through the use of CMYK colors. Hi-resolution proofs include Kodaks, Epsons, and Fuji proofs.  Both Friesens and Huaxin use Epson hi-resolution proofs.

F&G’s (Folded and Gathered Signatures)

Printed, folded, and collated signatures prior to binding.

Mock up

A blank dummy wrapped using press proofs to check design placement.

Press Proofs

For overseas production, press proofs are often run on a single color hand press (see Wet Proof). These can, at times, be problematic due to variations in ink densities. Press proofs can be run on a live printing press at a much higher cost with both domestic and overseas printers which will render an accurate reproduction of the final printed sheet.

Sample Case

A production case cover, stamped or printed, sent for approval prior to final casebinding.

Wet Proof

A proof made on a proofing press using the ink and paper specified for the job.  Wet proofs normally apply to overseas print jobs and are generated on a hand cranked proof press; not a live printing press.